Harper Lee’s “To Kill a Mocking Bird” turns 50

“Mockingbirds don’t do one thing but make music for us to enjoy.  They don’t eat up people’s gardens, don’t nest in corncribs, they don’t do one thing but sing their hearts out for us.  That’s why it’s a sin to kill a mockingbird.” – Atticus Finch in To Kill a Mockingbird

I clearly remember 8th grade reading assignments being anything but interesting, until “To Kill a Mockingbird” was assigned. Even for our developing minds, the narrative and deep set humanity of the book touched us, or at least I can say it touched me. Recently, I decided to look for my old copy and was saddened by its disappearance. So I sit here, typing, looking at the copy I picked up at the used book store with a strange cover I’ve never seen.There is something nostalgic for me about the cover I stared at wondering about whild trying to pay attention in english class(shown above.)  And maybe someday, I’ll find my old, whethered and much loved copy.

Harper Lee was born in Monroeville, AL in 1926. She was the youngest of 4 and childhood friends with Truman Capote, whom she later helped write In Cold Blood. She attended Alabama University and studied law, but dropped out 6 months early to pursue a literary career.

In 1960, To Kill a Mockingbird was published. It was a momentous success and within a year, it had been translated into 10 languages. In 1961 it won the Pulitzer Prize for Literature. I 1962, it was adapted to the screen, causing its popularity to grow to new heights.

The themes will remain in our hearts until we can no longer identify with what it feels like for a child to experience injustice. I hope you pick it up again. It’s worth it.


Joan of Arc: One Very Rebellious Teenager…





Insistent voices: AD 1428-1429

A sixteen-year-old peasant girl, growing up and tending the cattle at Domrémy, has for some years been hearing voices. She sometimes sees the speakers, and recognizes them as St Michael, St Catherine and St Margaret. But in this winter of 1428-9 they have been giving her a very specific instruction. She must raise the siege of Orléans so that the king of France, Charles VII, can go to Reims to be anointed in the cathedral.

The girl is Jeanne Darc, known in English as Joan of Arc. Her voices reflect a shrewd political perception which no one but she, it seems, has appreciated.

This perception relates to the common people’s idea of their king. Thanks to a long tradition, much fostered in the previous century by Charles V, it is believed that each French king acquires a divine quality once he is anointed with the sacred oil from the Sainte Ampoule at Reims.

At present, in the middle of the Hundred Years’ War, there are two rival claimants to the French crown. One is Henry VI, the young king of England, whose forces – in alliance with the Burgundians – control the entire north of France, including Reims itself. The other is Charles VII, king by rightful descent but a weak figure, confined to the region round Bourges.

Neither of these claimants has been anointed – Henry VI because he is a child of seven in England, Charles VII because he cannot get to Reims.

Joan sees with the clarity of passionate faith that if Charles can fight his way to Reims to be consecrated, France will have a king again. This becomes her mission. But first she must reach Charles himself. Dressed in a man’s clothes, with six male companions, she travels for eleven days to Chinon. It is two more days before her request to see Charles VII is granted. (He is often still referred to as the dauphin at this stage; he has been crowned at Poitiers in 1422, but Joan does not yet consider him a proper king). (more…)

Published in: on August 27, 2009 at 9:00 am  Comments (1)  
Tags: , ,

American Women Suffrage Anniversary!





One Hundred Years toward Suffrage: An Overview

Compiled by E. Susan Barber

Abigail Adams writes to her husband, John, who is attending the Continental Congress in Philadelphia, asking that he and the other men–who were at work on the Declaration of Independence–“Remember the Ladies.” John responds with humor. The Declaration’s wording specifies that “all men are created equal.”
1820 to 1880
Evidence from a variety of printed sources published during this period–advice manuals, poetry and literature, sermons, medical texts–reveals that Americans, in general, held highly stereotypical notions about women’s and men’s roles in society. Historians would later term this phenomenon “The Cult of Domesticity.”
Emma Hart Willard founds the Troy Female Seminary in New York–the first endowed school for girls.
Oberlin College becomes the first coeducational college in the United States. In 1841, Oberlin awards the first academic degrees to three women. Early graduates include Lucy Stone and Antoinette Brown.
Sarah Grimké begins her speaking career as an abolitionist and a women’s rights advocate. She is eventually silenced by male abolitionists who consider her public speaking a liability.
The first National Female Anti-Slavery Society convention meets in New York City. Eighty-one delegates from twelve states attend.
Mary Lyon founds Mount Holyoke College in Massachusetts, eventually the first four-year college exclusively for women in the United States. Mt. Holyoke was followed by Vassar in 1861, and Wellesley and Smith Colleges, both in 1875. In 1873, the School Sisters of Notre Dame found a school in Baltimore, Maryland, which would eventually become the nation’s first college for Catholic women.
Mississippi passes the first Married Woman’s Property Act.
Female textile workers in Massachusetts organize the Lowell Female Labor Reform Association (LFLRA) and demand a 10-hour workday. This was one of the first permanent labor associations for working women in the United States.
The first women’s rights convention in the United States is held in Seneca Falls, New York. Many participants sign a “Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions” that outlines the main issues and goals for the emerging women’s movement. Thereafter, women’s rights meetings are held on a regular basis.
Harriet Tubman escapes from slavery. Over the next ten years she leads many slaves to freedom by the Underground Railroad.
Amelia Jenks Bloomer launches the dress reform movement with a costume bearing her name. The Bloomer costume was later abandoned by many suffragists who feared it detracted attention from more serious women’s rights issues.
Former slave Sojourner Truth delivers her “Ain’t I a Woman?” speech before a spellbound audience at a women’s rights convention in Akron, Ohio.
Harriet Beecher Stowe publishes Uncle Tom’s Cabin, which rapidly becomes a bestseller.
The successful vulcanization of rubber provides women with reliable condoms for the first time. The birth rate in the United States continues its downward, century-long spiral. By the late 1900s, women will raise an average of only two to three children, in contrast to the five or six children they raised at the beginning of the century.
1861 to 65
The American Civil War disrupts suffrage activity as women, North and South, divert their energies to “war work.” The War itself, however, serves as a “training ground,” as women gain important organizational and occupational skills they will later use in postbellum organizational activity.
1865 to 1880
Southern white women create Confederate memorial societies to help preserve the memory of the “Lost Cause.” This activity propels many white Southern women into the public sphere for the first time. During this same period, newly emancipated Southern black women form thousands of organizations aimed at “uplifting the race.”
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony form the American Equal Rights Association, an organization for white and black women and men dedicated to the goal of universal suffrage.
The Fourteenth Amendment is ratified, which extends to all citizens the protections of the Constitution against unjust state laws. This Amendment was the first to define “citizens” and “voters” as “male.”
The women’s rights movement splits into two factions as a result of disagreements over the Fourteenth and soon-to-be-passed Fifteenth Amendments. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony form the more radical, New York-based National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA). Lucy Stone, Henry Blackwell, and Julia Ward Howe organize the more conservative American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA), which is centered in Boston. In this same year, the Wyoming territory is organized with a woman suffrage provision. In 1890, Wyoming was admitted to the Union with its suffrage provision intact.
The Fifteenth Amendment enfranchises black men. NWSA refuses to work for its ratification, arguing, instead, that it be “scrapped” in favor of a Sixteenth Amendment providing universal suffrage. Frederick Douglass breaks with Stanton and Anthony over NWSA’s position.
1870 to 1875
Several women–including Virginia Louisa Minor, Victoria Woodhull, and Myra Bradwell–attempt to use the Fourteenth Amendment in the courts to secure the vote (Minor and Woodhull) or the right to practice law (Bradwell). They all are unsuccessful.
Susan B. Anthony is arrested and brought to trial in Rochester, New York, for attempting to vote for Ulysses S. Grant in the presidential election. At the same time, Sojourner Truth appears at a polling booth in Battle Creek, Michigan, demanding a ballot; she is turned away.
The Woman’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) is founded by Annie Wittenmyer. With Frances Willard at its head (1876), the WCTU became an important force in the fight for woman suffrage. Not surprisingly, one of the most vehement opponents to women’s enfranchisement was the liquor lobby, which feared women might use the franchise to prohibit the sale of liquor.
A Woman Suffrage Amendment is introduced in the United States Congress. The wording is unchanged in 1919, when the amendment finally passes both houses.
The NWSA and the AWSA are reunited as the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) under the leadership of Elizabeth Cady Stanton. During this same year, Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr found Hull House, a settlement house project in Chicago’s 19th Ward. Within one year, there are more than a hundred settlement houses–largely operated by women–throughout the United States. The settlement house movement and the Progressive campaign of which it was a part propelled thousands of college-educated white women and a number of women of color into lifetime careers in social work. It also made women an important voice to be reckoned with in American politics.
Ida B. Wells launches her nation-wide anti-lynching campaign after the murder of three black businessmen in Memphis, Tennessee.
Hannah Greenbaum Solomon founds the National Council of Jewish Women (NCJW) after a meeting of the Jewish Women’s Congress at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois. In that same year, Colorado becomes the first state to adopt a state amendment enfranchising women.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton publishes The Woman’s Bible. After its publication, NAWSA moves to distance itself from this venerable suffrage pioneer because many conservative suffragists considered her to be too radical and, thus, potentially damaging to the suffrage campaign. From this time, Stanton–who had resigned as NAWSA president in 1892–was no longer invited to sit on the stage at NAWSA conventions.
Mary Church Terrell, Ida B. Wells-Barnett, Margaret Murray Washington, Fanny Jackson Coppin, Frances Ellen Watkins Harper, Charlotte Forten Grimké, and former slave Harriet Tubman meet in Washington, D.C. to form the National Association of Colored Women (NACW).
Mary Dreier, Rheta Childe Dorr, Leonora O’Reilly, and others form the Women’s Trade Union League of New York, an organization of middle- and working-class women dedicated to unionization for working women and to woman suffrage. This group later became a nucleus of the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union (ILGWU).
The National Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage (NAOWS) is organized. Led by Mrs. Arthur Dodge, its members included wealthy, influential women and some Catholic clergymen–including Cardinal Gibbons who, in 1916, sent an address to NAOWS’s convention in Washington, D.C. In addition to the distillers and brewers, who worked largely behind the scenes, the “antis” also drew support from urban political machines, Southern congressmen, and corporate capitalists–like railroad magnates and meatpackers–who supported the “antis” by contributing to their “war chests.”
Theodore Roosevelt’s Progressive (Bull Moose/Republican) Party becomes the first national political party to adopt a woman suffrage plank.
Alice Paul and Lucy Burns organize the Congressional Union, later known as the National Women’s Party (1916). Borrowing the tactics of the radical, militant Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU) in England, members of the Woman’s Party participate in hunger strikes, picket the White House, and engage in other forms of civil disobedience to publicize the suffrage cause.
The National Federation of Women’s Clubs–which by this time included more than two million white women and women of color throughout the United States–formally endorses the suffrage campaign.
NAWSA president Carrie Chapman Catt unveils her “winning plan” for suffrage victory at a convention in Atlantic City, New Jersey. Catt’s plan required the coordination of activities by a vast cadre of suffrage workers in both state and local associations.
Jeannette Rankin of Montana becomes the first American woman elected to represent her state in the U.S. House of Representatives.
1918 to 1920
The Great War (World War I) intervenes to slow down the suffrage campaign as some–but not all–suffragists decide to shelve their suffrage activism in favor of “war work.” In the long run, however, this decision proves to be a prudent one as it adds yet another reason to why women deserve the vote.
August 26, 1920
The Nineteenth Amendment is ratified. Its victory accomplished, NAWSA ceases to exist, but its organization becomes the nucleus of the League of Women Voters.
The National Woman’s Party first proposes the Equal Rights Amendment to eliminate discrimination on the basis of gender. It has never been ratified.

William H. Chafe, The American Woman: Her Changing Social, Economic, and Political Roles, 1920-1970; Nancy Cott, The Grounding of Modern Feminism; Thomas Dublin, Women at Work: The Transformation of Work and Community in Lowell, Massachusetts, 1826-1860; Sara M. Evans, Born for Liberty: A History of Women in America; Eleanor Flexner, Century of Struggle: The Woman’s Rights Movement in the United States, rev. ed.; Debra Franklin, The Heritage We Claim: College of Notre Dame of Maryland, 1896-1996; National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) Collection, Rare Books Division, Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.; Anne Firor Scott and Andrew Scott, One Half the People: The Fight for Woman Suffrage; “From Parlor to Politics,” permanent exhibit at the Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.; and Dorothy Sterling, ed. We Are Your Sisters: Black Women in the Nineteenth Century. Zophy, Angela Howard and Frances M. Kavenik, eds. Handbook of American Women’s History.

Published in: on August 26, 2009 at 10:10 am  Leave a Comment  
Tags: ,

International Women’s Suffrage

International Women's Day rally, Melbourne1_11410104_tcm11-17964Some countries in this list will make you proud, and some, very very angry. Switzerland did not allow women to vote in national elections until 1971! But in a very wonderful way, look at Massachusetts! 1756. How disappointing that our nation’s revolution took that right away. And sadly, there are still countries where women cannot vote today. See the list below. [And one very big disclaimer: this list did come from Wiki. I looked all over for a comprehensive list and came up empty handed. I have verified as much as possible and listed references below. And do feel free to look further into this topic on your own.]

18th century

19th century

  • 1838
  • 1861
    • South Australia (Only property-owning women for local elections, universal franchise in 1894)
  • 1862
    • Sweden (only in local elections, votes graded after taxation, universal franchise in 1918, which went into effect at the 1921 elections)
  • 1864
    • Flag of Victoria (Australia) Women in Victoria, Australia were unintentionally enfranchised by the Electoral Act (1863), and proceeded to vote in the following year’s elections. The Act was amended in 1865 to correct the error.[3]
  • 1869
    • Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom (only in local elections, universal franchise in 1928)
  • 18691920
    • Flag of Wyoming States and territories of the USA, progressively, starting with the Wyoming Territory in 1869 and the Utah Territory in 1870, though the latter was repealed by the Edmunds-Tucker Act in 1887. Wyoming acquired statehood in 1890 (Utah in 1896), allowing women to cast votes in federal elections. The United States as a whole acquired women’s suffrage in 1920 (see below) through the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution; voting qualifications in the U.S., even in federal elections, are set by the states, and this amendment prohibited states from discriminating on the basis of sex.

Statue of Esther Hobart Morris in front of the Wyoming State Capitol

  • 1881
    • Isle of Man (only property-owners until 1913, universal franchise in 1919.)
  • 1884
    • Canada Widows and spinsters granted the right to vote within municipalities in Ontario (later to other provinces).[4]
  • 1886
  • 1889
    • Franceville grants universal suffrage.[7] Loses self-rule within months.
  • 1893
  • 1894
    • South Australia grants universal suffrage, extending the franchise to all women (property-owners could vote in local elections from 1861), the first in Australia to do so. Women are also granted the right to stand for parliament, making South Australia the first in the world to do so.
    • Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom extends right to vote in local elections to married women.
  • 1899

20th century


The argument over women’s rights in Victoria was lampooned in this Melbourne Punch cartoon of 1887










21st century

Countries where women have limited or no voting rights today:

* Bhutan – One vote per house. Although this applies to both men and women, in practice it currently prevents many more women from voting than men. If the new proposed constitution is voted and ratified, then no restrictions will apply by 2008.

* Lebanon – Partial suffrage. Proof of elementary education is required for women but not for men. Voting is compulsory for men but optional for women.

* Brunei – No suffrage for women. Neither men nor women have had the right to vote or to stand for election since 1962 because the country is governed by an absolute monarchy.

* Saudi Arabia – No suffrage for women. The first local elections ever held in the country occurred in 2005. Women were not given the right to vote or to stand for election.

* United Arab Emirates – Limited, but will be fully expanded by 2010.

* Vatican City – No suffrage for women; while most men in the Vatican also lack the vote, all persons with suffrage in Papal conclaves (the Cardinals) are male.


  1. ^ * Åsa Karlsson-Sjögren: “Männen, kvinnorna och rösträtten : medborgarskap och representation 1723-1866” (Men, women and the vote: citizenship and representation 1723-1866) (in Swedish)
  2. ^ * Åsa Karlsson-Sjögren: “Männen, kvinnorna och rösträtten : medborgarskap och representation 1723-1866” (Men, women and the vote: citizenship and representation 1723-1866) (in Swedish)
  3. ^ Women in Parliament – Parliament of Victoria
  4. ^ Canada-WomensVote-WomenSuffrage
  5. ^ “Smallest State in the World,” New York Times, June 19, 1896, p 6
  6. ^ “Tiny Nation to Vote: Smallest Republic in the World to Hold a Presidential Election,” Lowell Daily Sun, Sep 17, 1896
  7. ^ “Wee, Small Republics: A Few Examples of Popular Government,” Hawaiian Gazette, Nov 1, 1895, p 1
  8. ^ Bourdiol, Julien (1908), Condition internationale des Nouvelles-Hebrides, p 106
  9. ^ (Italian) Extension to the women of the right to vote
  10. ^ Woman Suffrage Timeline International – Winning the Vote Around the World
  11. ^ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/bahrain/1411264/Bahrains-women-vote-for-first-time.html
Published in: on August 21, 2009 at 10:34 am  Leave a Comment  
Tags: , ,

Happy Birthday Coco Chanel!!!

Chanel: The Early Years

from Scandalous Women by Elizabeth Kerri Mahon

Today marks the birthday of one of the most influential women in the history of the fashion industry, Gabrielle ‘Coco’ Chanel. Her clothes are iconic, the interlocking C’s, spectator pumps, knit suits, the little quilted black bag, the perfume Chanel No. 5. Chanel is probably one of the most knocked off designers on the planet; just take a visit down to Canal Street in New York where you can buy an imitation Chanel bag for a song. Her name came to mean female emancipation and feminine allure. She was the only fashion designer to be named on TIME Magazine’s 100 most influential people of the 20th century. Before her death she was even the subject of a Broadway musical, Coco starring Katherine Hepburn as Chanel.

Chanel was not the first woman designer to break into the male dominated world of fashion in Paris, Madeleine Vionnet and Jeanne Lanvin were already designing by the time Chanel opened her first milliner’s shop. The first major fashion house was created by an Englishmen Charles Worth. He was soon joined by Jacques Doucet and finally Paul Poiret, the man who released women from the straightjacket of the corset early in the 20th century. But Chanel was the first designer to use ordinary fabrics such as jersey, and flannel that were normally associated with the working classes in her designs, and the first to use design element usually found in men’s clothing such as open collared shirts, and men’s ties.

Like many Scandalous Women, Chanel was a master of reinvention. Along the way, she disavowed anyone who knew the true story of her early life. Chanel was born on August 19, 1884 in a hospice to Albert Chanel, an itinerant peddler and Jeanne Devolle. Her parents were not married, making her illegitimate, a fact that she kept hidden out of embarrassment. She was named Gabrielle Bonheur after the nun who took care of her mother. When she was 11, her mother died suddenly and her father disappeared from her life for good. None of Chanel’s relatives were interested in taking in five children, so they were quickly separated; Chanel and her sisters were sent to an orphanage run by nuns in Aubazine, while her two brothers were sent to a work farm. Chanel would later claim that she had been raised by maiden aunts who were cruel to her. Chanel and her sisters lived at the convent for six years, during which Chanel learned how to sew, but it was her Aunt Louise who Chanel spent time with during school holidays who taught her how to sew with imagination.. (more…)

Published in: on August 20, 2009 at 12:31 pm  Leave a Comment  
Tags: , ,

New “Secret History” Mini-series by Oliver Stone

From the NY Daily News:

Oliver Stone has a secret . . . or ten.

The Academy Award-winning director is shooting a ten part nonfiction series for Showtime about “secret” events in U.S. history.

“Oliver Stone’s Secret History of America,” debuting in 2010, covers topics from the reasons behind the Cold War with the U.S.S.R. and changes in America’s global role since the fall of Communism to President Harry Truman’s difficult decision to drop the atomic bomb on Japan in 1945.

Showtime says the project examines events that were “at the time under-reported, but crucially shaped America’s unique and complex history.”

Stone believes the series will become “the deepest contribution I could ever make in film to my children and the next generation,” he said in a statement to Reuters. “I can only hope a change in our thinking will result.”

The 62-year-old won a Purple Heart for his military service in Vietnam, and drew praise for his Oscar-winning war films “Platoon” and “Born on the Fourth of July”.

But his historical takes in the feature film “JFK” and his Fidel Castro documentary “Comandante” drew criticism, with some slamming his material for being opinionated or flat-out imaginative.

Stone’s last foray into political movies, “W,” about President George W. Bush, opened in 2008 just weeks before the last U.S. presidential election.

He’s currently filming a sequel to his 1987 hit “Wall Street,” which highlighted the greed and corruption behind the stock market and financial industry.

Stone has been working on his “Secret History” series for almost two years, and will narrate each 60-minute episode. An air date for the debut has not been set yet.

Read more: http://www.nydailynews.com/entertainment/tv/2009/08/20/2009-08-20_in_.html#ixzz0OjVLf8J6

Published in: on August 20, 2009 at 9:23 am  Leave a Comment  
Tags: ,

And The Pursuit of Happiness…

Below, find the beginning of a wonderful blog from Maira Kalman of the New York Times. She is a gifted and hilarious writer. Click any of the images to be taken to the blog to read it in its entirety. I now officially have a huge crush on her and thank her for making history that much sexier!

Published in: on August 11, 2009 at 10:06 pm  Leave a Comment  
Tags: ,

Fountain of Youth?

Fountain of Youth—Just Wishful Thinking?

By Willie Drye at National Geographic

During his twilight years, American author Mark Twain noted that “life would be infinitely happier if we could only be born at the age of 80 and gradually approach 18.”

Photo: Painting of the Fountain of Youth

Painting of the mythical Fountain of Youth

Photograph by Fine Art Photographic Library/CORBIS

Twain’s quip was only one of many complaints about aging that have been recorded for as long as humans have dreaded the downside of a long life. The ancient Greek poet Homer called old age “loathsome,” and William Shakespeare termed it “hideous winter.”

So it’s not hard to understand why there have always been hopes and rumors that something soon to be discovered—magic waters, say, or maybe stem cell research—will do away with old age.

Alexander the Great, who conquered most of the known world before he died around 323 B.C., may have been looking for a river that healed the ravages of age. During the 12th century A.D., a king known to Europeans as Prester John supposedly ruled a land that had a river of gold and a fountain of youth.

But the name linked most closely to the search for a fountain of youth is 16th-century Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon, who allegedly thought it would be found in Florida. In St. Augustine, the oldest city in the U.S., there’s a tourist attraction dating back a century that purports—albeit in a tongue-in-cheek way—to be the fountain of youth that Ponce de Leon discovered soon after he arrived in what is now Florida in 1513.

There are a couple of problems with labeling St. Augustine’s natural spring as Ponce de Leon’s fountain of youth, however. Elderly visitors who drink the spring’s sulfur-smelling water don’t turn into teenagers. And Ponce de Leon probably wasn’t looking for such a fountain and may not have set foot near present-day St. Augustine. Many historians now think he came ashore about 140 miles (225 kilometers) farther south near present-day Melbourne.

The Thrill of the Chase?

But the tale of the search for a fountain of youth is so appealing that it survives anyway, says Ryan K. Smith, a professor of history at Virginia Commonwealth University in Richmond.

“People are more intrigued by the story of looking and not finding than they are by the idea that the fountain might be out there somewhere,” Smith says.

No original documents survive from Ponce de Leon’s Florida expedition. Spanish historians writing long after he died in 1521 may have created the story that he was seeking the fountain to make fun of him because he was an old man who wanted to restore his sexual vigor, Smith says.

Still, a few grains of truth have helped sustain the story. Kathleen Deagan, a professor of archaeology at the University of Florida in Gainesville and a National Geographic Society grantee, says a cemetery and the remains of a Spanish mission dating back to St. Augustine’s founding in 1565 have been discovered near the so-called fountain of youth.

“It’s always been interesting and ironic that the site is, in fact, one of the most important historical sites in Florida,” Deagan says.

Michelle Reyna, a spokesperson for the Fountain of Youth Archaeological Park in St. Augustine, says the fountain has been a tourist attraction since at least 1901 and may have been attracting visitors since 1860.

Published in: on August 7, 2009 at 9:00 am  Leave a Comment  

JOHN ADAMS-Declaration of Independence-Drafting in 1776

I just started watching this mini-series and am in LOVE. We were still sitting on the edge of our seats after 2 1/2 hours of disk one. Here is a great moment between Thomas Jefferson, John Adams and Benjamin Franklin.

Vodpod videos no longer available.

more about “JOHN ADAMS-Declaration of Independenc…“, posted with vodpod

Who Killed Pocahontas?

I loved this little bit from History Confidential by Bacall. Do enjoy!

We all have heard or seen a movie about the notorious love affair between Pocahontas and John Smith. Well the story didn’t quite happen the way we’ve heard or seen in movies. Legend has it that Pocahontas saved John Smith from native warriors who were about to club him to death. The story goes that Pocahontas ran to John Smith, cradled his head in her arms, and the warriors let him live. This is questioned by historians as this story is nowhere to found in John Smith’s journals. As far as them having a love affair shortly after this incident may not be true, as Pocahontas is believed to have been just twelve at the time (1607) and John Smith was twenty nine. What apparently happened though was that Pocahontas developed a girl crush on the dashing John Smith. It is known that Pocahontas did visit the Jamestown settlement frequently. Evidently she had a crush on him as she stopped visiting the settlement when John Smith went back to England in 1609.


In 1612 Pocahontas was taken captive by the Englishmen. She asked about John Smith and was told he had died. She was told this lie by John Rolfe who unbeknownst to her wanted her for himself. And in 1614 John Rolfe married her, she learned English, and was given the Christian name of Rebecca. In 1616 she accompanied her husband to England and it is here she finds out that John Smith is in fact alive, is married and has several children. Her husband John lied to her.  John Smith went to see Rebecca and according to a note in his journal, it was a quick visit, and Rebecca was not well. He said: “After a modest salutation, without any word, she turned about, obscured her face as not seeming well contented and in that humor…we all left her…”

The day she, her son and husband were going to return to America, at the age of 21, Rebecca lapsed into a coma and died. But what killed her? Was it a broken heart? Did her husband speak the truth when he said Rebecca developed a fever the same day of her departure? Or was she murdered by a husband who became consumed with jealously? We will never know. The answer lies in an unmarked grave in St. George Church cemetery, located some twenty miles east of London.

Published in: on August 6, 2009 at 10:04 am  Comments (1)  
Tags: ,